Articles and Papers [Index]

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The Social location of language teaching: from zeitgeist to imperative
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2013. In Ahmed, Azra; Mehnaz Hanzala, Faiza Saleem and Graeme Cane. ELT in a Changing World. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.


Drawing on ideas from social theory, the paper argues that the nature of language teaching is intimately related to its social and temporal location. After a brief review of developments in LT from the late 1950s onwards, the paper shows how the nature of the influence from 'outside' has now moved from being simply a zeitgeist towards being an imperative – directly determing the shape of what is done in classrooms.

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Language Teaching Materials and the (Very) Big Picture
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2012. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching. Vol. 9, Suppl. 1, pp. 283–297.


An analysis of the impact of social change on the design of LT materials, with a particular emphasis on how the phenomena of McDonaldization and Neo-liberalism are shaping present-day ELT materials.

You can find the complete special issue on materials development at the e-FLT Journal website. (Opens in a new page.)

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Introduction
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2012. Introduction from Language Studies: Stretching the Boundaries. Cambridge Scholars Publishing


An overview of papers in the collection.

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Why don't my students read?
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2011. from READ magazine Issue 2. Abu Dhabi


A brief discussion of the cognitive and socio-emotional factors that cause a reluctance to read.

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The analysis of language teaching materials: Inside the Trojan horse
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2011. In Tomlinson, B. (Ed.) Materials Development in Language Teaching, 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press. Available now.


A model for the analysis and evaluation of teaching materials, with an updated discussion. First edition 1998, revised edition 2011. This is a large file (21mb) due to the scans of materials. Click here for a low resolution version

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Real world language teaching
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2011. In Ahmed, Azra; Graeme Cane and Mehnaz Hanzala. Teaching English in Multilingual Contexts: Challenges and Future Directions. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.


This paper discusses how far major approaches in syllabus and methdology take account of social factors in classroom language learning. It considers proposals for an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) syllabus, possible learner perceptions of this, and major theories (or ‘faiths’) of language acquisition processes. In each case, the paper argues that they fail to take account of the social psychology of the context of language learning.

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Digging deeper: learners' disposition and strategy use
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2009. Strategies in Language Learning and Teaching. RELC, Singapore.


A discussion of the assumptions behind strategy training, and the feasibility of implementation, particularly with school-aged students.

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The tip of the iceberg: Factors affecting learners' motivation
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2008. RELC Journal. 39/2.


The paper reviews four factors significant in affecting learner motivation: the locus of control, a sense of value and purpose, self-esteem, and feelings of success. These concepts are then used to interpret interview data from two school-aged learners.

Note: Articles and papers 2002 to 2007 are not presently available for technical reasons.

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Motivation: Where does it come from? Where does it go?
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2001. English Teaching Professional. Issue 19 March 2001.


The various factors affecting student motivation and some practical suggestions for helping students to maintain their motivation.

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The significance of negotiation
Michael P Breen and Andrew Littlejohn. 2000. Classroom Decision Making. Cambridge University Press.


An extract from Chapter 1 in the book Classroom Decision Making, which offers a collection of accounts where teachers shared classroom decisions with students. Chapter 1 discusses the underlying philosophy.

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The practicalities of negotiation
Breen, Michael P. and Andrew Littlejohn. 2000. Classroom Decision Making. Cambridge University Press.


Chapter 18 from the book Classroom Decision Making, which summarises practical ways of sharing decisions, and a discussion of the constraints and issues involved.

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Language teaching for the future
Littlejohn, Andrew. 2000. Shaping our Future: Proceedings of the 7th ELICOS Conference. Elicos, Sydney, Australia.


The demands and changes in the future and how language teaching can (and should) respond - includes section on the 'McDonaldisation of ELT'.

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Language teaching for the millenium
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1998. English Teaching Professional.. Issue 8, 1998.


The demands and changes in the future and how language teaching can (and should) respond.

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Sharing decisions with students: Some whys, hows, and how nots
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1998. Cambridge English for Schools Level 4 Teachers Book, Cambridge University Press.


Introducing the idea of the 'Curriculum Pyramid' (developed in the paper 'The Practicalities of negotiation', above), and setting out some cosiderations in sharing classroom decisions

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Language learning tasks and education.
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1997. English Teaching Professional Issue 6. 1997.


The third in a series of three articles on tasks, explaining how wider educational aims can be integrated into language learning.

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Making good tasks better.
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1997. English Teaching Professional Issue 3, 1997.


The second in a series of three article on tasks, showing some simple ways to make tasks more effective and more educational.

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The analysis of language teaching materials: Inside the Trojan horse
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1998. In Tomlinson, B. (Ed.) Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press


A model for the analysis and evaluation of teaching materials.

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Self-access work and curriculum ideologies
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1997. In Benson, P and P Voller (Eds.), Autonomy and independence in Language Learning. Longman.


Relates an analysis of ideologies inherent educational practices to self-access work and makes recommendations for new practices.

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Researching the classroom
Littlejohn, Andrew. In Littlejohn, Andrew and Diana Hicks. 1998. Cambridge English for SchoolsLevel 3 Teacher's Book, CUP 1997.


Classroom research as a part of normal teaching.


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What is a good task?
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1996. English Teaching Professional.Issue 1, 1996.
The first in a series of three articles which show some ways in which we can analyse and choose classroom tasks

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Language teaching in schools: What do students learn?
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1995. In Hill, D. A. (Ed.) English Language Teaching. British Council, Milan, Italy.


Discusses the 'learning beyond language learning' that can come through the methodology of classroom teaching.

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Developing teacher education schemes
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1994. ACETR Journal Czech Republic and elsewhere.

Discussion paper commissioned by the Club Schools cooperative, Switzerland. 1994.

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Teaching school aged learners (Part 3): Teacher and learner decisions
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1994. Laurels Newsletter, Brazil, and elsewhere.


Part 3 of the article on teaching school aged learners, with suggestions concerning how learners can be involved in classroom decisions.

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Teaching school aged learners (Part 2): Some practical possibilities
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1994. Laurels Newsletter, Brazil, and elsewhere.


Part 2 of the article on teaching school aged learners, with further practical ideas.

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Teaching school aged learners (Part 1): A framework for understanding and some indications for change
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1994. Laurels Newsletter, Brazil, and elsewhere.


Part 1 of a series of articles on teaching school aged learners. A 'Theory X/Theory Y' view of classroom practice and some practical suggestions.

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Why are ELT materials the way they are?
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1992. PhD Thesis Lancaster University.


The thesis is available on this website. Please click here for details.

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Writing: a neglected opportunity for language teaching?
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1992. In Hill, D.A. (Ed.) The State of the Art MacMillan.


How writing can take a central place in language teaching.

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Learning to write / Writing to learn
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1990. Les Cahiers de l'APLIUT /38. APLIUT. Paris, France.


Shows how writing can be integrated into language learning, so that it can become a 'mode' of learning

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Beyond language learning: Some perspectives on materials design.
Littlejohn, Andrew and Scott Windeatt. 1989. In Johnson, R.K. (Ed.) The Second Language Curriculum. Cambridge University Press.


Some ways of analysing language teaching materials.

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How to fail interviews
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1988. In Littlejohn, Andrew and Mohammed Melouk (Eds.) Research Methods and Processes Lancaster University


Describes problems in using interviews in research, and suggests some solutions

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Learner choice in language study
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1985. ELT Journal.Vol. 39, Issue 4


Describes systems for the use of a self access centre and the results gained from modifications to the system.

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Increasing learner involvement in course management
Littlejohn, Andrew. 1983. TESOL Quarterly. Vol 19 Issue 4.


Reports on the outcomes of activities designed to involve university level language students in course management.